Microcontrollers are semiconductor chips that combine a processor core with several peripheral functions. Of course, the working memory and the program memory are also included. Some chips also offer EEprom memory to store parameters. Today, a microcontroller's periphery is extremely diversified. It ranges from outstanding timer modules with several special features, to interfaces with state-of-the-art design. Modern interfaces include, for instance, USB, Can, Ethernet, LIN, Uart, SPI, and I2C.
Needless to say, analog functions are currently integrated in almost every microcontroller. These include, e.g. ADCs (analog-digital converters), DACs (digital-analog converters) or power amplifiers. As to the required supply voltage, modern microcontrol ers come with an integrated analog regulator.
Microcontroller development is definitely heading towards ever more complex, extremely powerful one-chip computer systems for the most diverse applications.